Uk Us Wine Agreement
We use imports of four categories of products coded according to the six-digit Harmonized System (SH): “wine, champagne” (220410), “wine, again, in containers of 2 l or less” (220421), “Wine, still in containers of more than 2 l” (220429), “grape must” (220430). We include all types of bilaterals applicable to wine imports: hygiene and plant health protection standards (SS), technical barriers to trade (TT) and pre-shipment inspections. We collected annual bilateral data from the Global Non-Tariff Measures Database for NTMs and the United Nations Comtrade Import Database. The dataset includes 24 countries (selected from among the major importers, exporters and wine producers) and includes data for the end of 1991 to 2016. We find a positive relationship between imports and health and plant health standards (SS) and pre-shipment inspections: As expected, bilateral NTMs facilitate the global wine trade. This is especially true for SS: on average, SSs are the most influential on imports. Global imports also increase when inspections are carried out before shipment, but their impact is not as significant as for SS. Our results complement the results of Dal Bianco et al.  which focus on wine exports. In particular, we found that SBs increased imports while noting that they did not affect exports; We found that technical measures have a mixed effect on imports, while concluding that they are significant export frictions.
To examine the impact of bilateral non-tariff measures (NBMs) on world wine trade, we use a standard approach to gravity: bilateral trade flows should be explained by economic masses and economic distance between countries . After Baldwin and Taglioni , we recognize the economic masses of import (i) and export (d) of countries with “countries” (I) and exporters (J) strong effects to account for multilateral resistance conditions. Fixed effects cover size effects and taxes on uncontrolled heterogeneity specific to each country . We use temporal effects to control specific events. The British Ambassador to Chile, Jamie Bowden, said: “Britain and Chile have a long-term trading relationship. The UK is still working on an agreement with the European Union on the terms of our exit. The success of these discussions will determine whether the current agreement between the EU and Chile at the end of March this year or at the end of an implementation period will no longer apply to the UK. The UK is the fourth largest market by value for U.S. wine exports, worth $227 million in 2017, according to the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR), which this week announced trade continuity agreements. The U.S.-U.K. wine trade agreement, which contains obligations on winemaking practices and labelling requirements, will ensure market stability for bilateral wine trade.
The United Kingdom was the fourth largest export market for U.S. wine products in 2017, with a value of $227 million. A wide literature has examined the influence of NTMs on trade in agri-food products and has provided mixed evidence: barriers [7-9] or catalysts  for trade. Few studies examine whether and how nM influence the wine trade: Olper and Raimondi  assess the effects of processed foods on trade (. B spirit drinks, wine, malt, beverages, oils and fats, grinding products, bakeries), and conclude that NTMs have an effect on reducing trade; about the bottled wine trade, Dal Bianco et al.